Bambusa tulda Roxb.

Dendrocalamus tulda (Roxb.) Voigt
Common Name: Wamunna (Assam), Tulda (Bengal), Mirtinga (Tripura), Jati (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, West Bengal), Wati, Owati (Meghalaya), Mirtinga (Tripura), Rawthing (Mizoram), Paoshiding, Koraincho bans (Sikkim), Deobans (Behar), Longmeii (Nagaland)

Bamboo Morphology Culms : Tufted Height: 7- 23m  Diameter:5- 10cm  Culm Color: Gray green
Internode Length: 40-70cm  Culm Sheath Colour: 15-25 cm long and broad, attenuate upwardsand rounded or truncate at top, deciduous,adaxial surface smooth and often withwhitish powder, abaxial surface some times covered with appressed brown hairs; blade broadly triangular, reniform or cordate, cuspidate, erect, hairy within; ligulecontinuous with the sheath top, narrow ,entire; auricles 2, unequal, larger onecontinuous with the blade and roundedwith ciliate margin.

Length of Leaf: 15- 25cm  Breadth of Leaf : 2- 4cm  Leaf Shape: Linear lanceolate

Habitat: evergreen & Mixed deciduous forest  Altitude: 1500m  Soil: Alluvial soil, sandy, clayey soil

Native to: Bhutan, Nepal, India, Bangladesh,Burma, China
Introduced to: Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttrakand, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

Description of Inflorescence and Flower: sometimes an immense radicalleafless panicle, sometimes a short leafy paniculate or spicate branch; branches spicate, bearing interrupted clusters offew (1-5) usually fertile long spikelets supported by shining chaffy bracts; rachis smooth, striate, spikelets variable inlength from 2.5-7.5 cm long, 5 mm broad, sessile, glabrous; cylindrical and acute at first, afterwards divided into manyflowers separated by conspicuous rachillae, bearing first 1- 2 short bracts, then 2-4 usually gemmiparous empty glumes,4-6 fertile flowers, and 1 or 2 imperfect or male terminal flowers; empty glumes acute, many-nerved; flowering glumemany-nerved, glabrous, striate 1.2-2.5 cm long and 7.5 mm broad, ovate acute or acuminate, mucronate, some time sminutely ciliate on the edges; palea rather shorter, boat-shaped, 2- keeled, with long white ciliae on the keels and penicillate at the tip, 5-7 nerves in the groove between the keels; rachillae clavate, flattened, striate, glabrous except onthe ciliate tip and occasionally the faintly ciliate edges, articulate below the glumes, so that the spikelets readily breaksup; lodicules 3, 2.5 mm long, 2 cuneate, oblong, obliquely truncate, thickened and fleshy below, especially on one side, hyaline and about 5-nerved above, the upper part long, white fimbriate, the third not thickened, hyaline, acute, long,fimbriate. Stamens long exserted; anther 7.5 mm, purple, glabrous, blunt at the tip or emarginate. Ovary obovateoblong,white, hairy above, surmounted by a short hairy style, divided into 3 long plumose wavy stigmas.
Flowering Cycle: 30-60 years  Flowering Reported:Bengal (1867-68,1930,1936), Assam (1930), Dehra Dun (1986)

Propagation:Seeds, culm cutting, Tissue culture

Uses: Construction, scaffoldings, reinforced concrete, edible, baskets, fences, stakes, handicraft, pulp and paper, flutes, boards, hats, plates, containers

References: Seethalakshmi K. K, 1998; Rao A.N, 1999; Manual for establishment and management of bamboo plantations, march 2005